Altered

Released on 30/08/2018

Key Learning Points

  • APN: Antibiotic therapy
  • APN: Causative organisms
  • APN: Indications for admission
  • Acute Pyelonephritis (APN)
  • VUR: causes
  • VUR: conservative management
  • VUR: continuous antibiotic prophylaxis
  • VUR: follow-up
  • VUR: grades
  • VUR: indications for renal scintigraphy
  • VUR: indications for surgery
  • Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)

References

1. MORELLO W, LA SCOLA C, ALBERICI I, MONTINI G. Acute pyelonephritis in children. Pediatr Nephrol [online] 2016 Aug, 31(8):1253-65 [viewed 01 December 2017] Available from: DOI: 10.1007/s00467-015-3168-5
2. WALTON JM. Antibiotics for acute pyelonephritis in children Paediatr Child Health [online] 2015 Oct, 20(7):349-350 [viewed 01 December 2017] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4614086
3. PRASAD MM, CHENG EY. Imaging studies and biomarkers to detect clinically meaningful vesicoureteral reflux Investig Clin Urol [online] 2017 May 24, 58(Suppl 1):S23-S31 [viewed 01 December 2017] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5468261
4. BLAIS AS, BOLDUC S, MOORE K. Vesicoureteral reflux: From prophylaxis to surgery Can Urol Assoc J [online] 2017 Jan-Feb, 11(1-2Suppl1):S13-S18 [viewed 01 December 2017] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5332225
5. LEE T, PARK JM. Vesicoureteral reflux and continuous prophylactic antibiotics Investig Clin Urol [online] 2017 May 29, 58(Suppl 1):S32-S37 [viewed 01 December 2017] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5468262
6. TEIXEIRA CAMILA BORGES BEZERRA, CANcADO MARIA APARECIDA DE PAULA, CARVALHAES JOaO TOMaS DE ABREU. Primary vesicoureteral reflux: conservative therapy or surgical intervention. [online] 2014 December, 36(1):10-17 [viewed 01 December 2017] Available from: doi:10.5935/0101-2800.20140004
7. KARI JA, EL-DESOKY SM, BASNAWI F, BAHRAWI O. Vesicoureteric reflux in children. Urol Ann [online] 2013 Oct, 5(4):232-6 [viewed 01 December 2017] Available from: DOI: 10.4103/0974-7796.120292
8. WILDBRETT P, SCHWEBS M, ABEL JR, LODE H, BARTHLEN W. Spontaneous vesicoureteral reflux resolution in children: A ten-year single-centre experience. Afr J Paediatr Surg [online] 2013 Jan-Apr, 10(1):9-12 [viewed 01 December 2017] Available from: DOI: 10.4103/0189-6725.109375
9. SALEH FARGHALY HR, MOHAMED SAYED MH. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan in evaluation of renal cortical scarring: Is it mandatory to do single photon emission computerized tomography? Indian J Nucl Med [online] 2015 Jan-Mar, 30(1):26-30 [viewed 01 December 2017] Available from: DOI: 10.4103/0972-3919.147530
10. PETERS CA, SKOOG SJ, ARANT BS JR, COPP HL, ELDER JS, HUDSON RG, KHOURY AE, LORENZO AJ, POHL HG, SHAPIRO E, SNODGRASS WT, DIAZ M. Summary of the AUA Guideline on Management of Primary Vesicoureteral Reflux in Children. J Urol [online] 2010 Sep, 184(3):1134-44 [viewed 01 December 2017] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20650499