Bitten again

Released on 04/08/2017

Key Learning Points

  • Anaerobic coverage
  • Care of tetanus patients
  • Dysautonomia in tetanus
  • Guidelines for tetanus prevention
  • Management of tetanus
  • Post exposure prophylaxis for unvaccinated persons
  • Tetanus immune globulin
  • Tetanus vaccine efficacy

References

1. GAUTRET P, LIM PL, SHAW M, LEDER K. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in travellers returning from Bali, Indonesia, November 2008 to March 2010. Clin Microbiol Infect [online] 2011 Mar, 17(3):445-7 [viewed 15 May 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20491825
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of a reduced (4 dose) vaccine schedule for post exposure prophylaxis to prevent human rabies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online]. 2016. [Accessed 20 May 2016]. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5902.pdf
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tetanus prevention after a Disaster. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online]. 2016. [Accesseed 21 May 2016]. Retrieved from: http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/disease/tetanus.asp
4. FRESHWATER-TURNER D, UDY A, LIPMAN J, DEANS R, STUART J, BOOTS R, HEGDE R, MCWHINNEY BC. Autonomic dysfunction in tetanus - what lessons can be learnt with specific reference to alpha-2 agonists? Anaesthesia [online] 2007 Oct, 62(10):1066-70 [viewed 21 May 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17845661
5. RODRIGO C, FERNANDO D, RAJAPAKSE S. Pharmacological management of tetanus: an evidence-based review Crit Care [online] 2014/01/01 00:00, 18(2):217 [viewed 21 May 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4057067
6. AHMADSYAH I, SALIM A. Treatment of tetanus: an open study to compare the efficacy of procaine penicillin and metronidazole. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) [online] 1985/09/07 00:00, 291(6496):648-650 [viewed 21 May 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1417474
7. PURKIS IE, CURTIS JE. Severe Tetanus: Its Complications and Management Can Med Assoc J [online] 1965/12/04 00:00, 93(23):1200-1204 [viewed 21 May 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1936490
8. HSU S, GROLEAU G. Tetanus in the emergency department: A current review. The Journal of Emergency Medicine [Internet]. 2001 [cited 21 December 2016];20(4):357-365. Available from: http://www.jem-journal.com/article/S0736-4679(01)00312-2/abstract?cc=y=
9. FANSULA AJ. Challenges of Tracheostomy in Patients Managed for Severe Tetanus in a Developing Country. Int J Prev Med. [Online] 2010 1(3): 176-181 [viewed 21 December 2016] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3075528/
10. QUASIM SEEMA. Tetanus. Anesthesia UK [Online]. 2006 [viewed 21 December 2016] Available from: http://www.frca.co.uk/article.aspx?articleid=100599