Narrowed

Released on 05/06/2014

Key Learning Points

  • Critical limb ischemia (CLI).
  • Fontaine stage
  • Leriche syndrome
  • Locomotor brachialis

References

1. RAO BNVR. Clinical examination in cardiology. 1st ed. New Delhi: Elsevier, 2007. ISBN 978-813-1231-548.
2. IMAM I, OLORUNFEMI G. Clinical Diagnosis of Stroke: Need for Audit. Annals of African Medicine [online] 2004; 3(4):167-169 [viewed 28th April 2014] Available from http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?am04043
3. KANDARPA K edited. Peripheral vascular interventions. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams, 2008. ISBN 978-078-1786-874
4. European Stroke Organisation, Authors/Task Force Members, Tendera M, et al. ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases: Document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries: the Task Force on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Artery Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2011; 32:2851.Eur Heart J [online](2011) 32 (22): 2851-2906 [viewed 28th April 2014]. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr211
5. ACC/AHA 2005 guidelines for the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (lower extremity, renal, mesenteric, and abdominal aortic): a collaborative report from the American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, Society of Interventional Radiology, and the ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease). (2) 2011 ACCF/AHA focused update of the guideline for the management of patients with peripheral artery disease (updating the 2005 guideline). A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation [online]. 2006;113:e463-e654 [viewed 28th April 2014] doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.174526
6. HANKEY GJ, WARLOW CP, SELLAR RJ. Cerebral angiographic risk in mild cerebrovascular disease. Stroke [Online]. 1990;21:209-222 [viewed 28th April 2014] doi: 10.1161/01.STR.21.2.209
7. NORGREN L.,HIATT WR, DORMANDY JA, NEHLER MR,et al. Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II). Journal of Vascular Surgery [online]. 2007, vol. 45, issue 1, S5-S67 [viewed 28th April 2014]. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2006.12.037