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Released on 26/12/2018

Key Learning Points

  • Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica
  • Interferon beta-1a
  • Lhermitte's sign
  • Natalizumab
  • Optic neuritis
  • The Expanded Disability Status Score

References

1. LEVENSON JH, KOZARSKY A. VISUAL ACUITY. In: WALKER HK, HALL WD, HURST JW, editors. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Chapter 115 [online] [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK219/
2. ABRAMS JD. TRANSILLUMINATION OF THE IRIS DURING ROUTINE SLIT-LAMP EXAMINATION. The British Journal of Ophthalmology [online] 1964;48(1):42-44 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC505902/?page=1
3. SPECTOR RH. Visual Fields. In: WALKER HK, HALL WD, HURST JW, editors. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Chapter 116 [online] [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK220/
4. TOOSY AT, MASON DF, MILLER DH. Optic neuritis. Lancet Neurol [online] 2014 Jan, 13(1):83-99 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24331795
5. WILHELM H, SCHABET M. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Optic Neuritis. Dtsch Arztebl Int [online] 2015 Sep 11, 112(37):616-25; quiz 626 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396053
6. WILLIAMS MT, TAPOS DO, JUHáSZ C. Use of the 2010 McDonald criteria can facilitate early diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis in a predominantly black cohort. Pediatr Neurol [online] 2014 Dec, 51(6):826-30 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25283753
7. KATZ SAND I. Classification, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol [online] 2015 Jun, 28(3):193-205 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25887774
8. MATTHEWS L, KOLIND S, BRAZIER A, LEITE MI, BROOKS J, TRABOULSEE A, JENKINSON M, JOHANSEN-BERG H, PALACE J. Imaging Surrogates of Disease Activity in Neuromyelitis Optica Allow Distinction from Multiple Sclerosis. PLoS One [online] 2015 Sep 18, 10(9):e0137715 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26381510
9. OTA M, SATO N, OKAMOTO T, NODA T, ARAKI M, YAMAMURA T, KUNUGI H. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and multiple sclerosis: Differentiation by a multimodal approach. Mult Scler Relat Disord [online] 2015 Nov, 4(6):515-20 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590657
10. SAGUIL A, KANE S, FARNELL E. Multiple sclerosis: a primary care perspective. Am Fam Physician [online] 2014 Nov 1, 90(9):644-52 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368924
11. HILLS A, AL-HAKIM M. Lhermitte Sign as a Presenting Symptom of Thoracic Spinal Pathology: A Case Study. Case Rep Neurol Med [online] 2015:707362 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26339515
12. COBO-CALVO Á, BAU L, MATAS E, ROMERO-PINEL L, MAñé MARTíNEZ MA, MAJóS C, MARTíNEZ YéLAMOS S. Effectiveness of natalizumab in patients with highly active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Eur Neurol [online] 2015, 73(3-4):220-9 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25792347
13. DOMíNGUEZ-MOZO MI, GARCíA-MONTOJO M, ARIAS-LEAL A, GARCíA-MARTíNEZ Á, SANTIAGO JL, CASANOVA I, GALáN V, ARROYO R, FERNáNDEZ-ARQUERO M, ALVAREZ-LAFUENTE R. Monitoring the John Cunningham virus throughout natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis patients. Eur J Neurol [online] 2016 Jan, 23(1):182-9 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26498276
14. JANKOVIC SM. Injectable interferon beta-1b for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. J Inflamm Res [online] 2010; 3: 25-31 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3218739/
15. MEYER-MOOCK S, FENG YS, MAEURER M, DIPPEL FW, KOHLMANN T. Systematic literature review and validity evaluation of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) in patients with multiple sclerosis. BMC Neurol [online] 2014 Mar 25:58 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24666846
16. KORB P, & SIMPSON J. (2016). Approach to Acute Visual Changes, Abnormal Eye Movements, and Double Vision. The Hospital Neurology Book (1st ed.) (pp. 377-402). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.