Replacement

Released on 27/09/2016

Key Learning Points

  • HRT risks and benefits
  • HRT usage in hot flashes
  • Natural vs. synthetic progestogens and breast cancer
  • Postmenopausal symptoms

References

1. HOU N, HONG S, WANG W, OLOPADE OI, DIGNAM JJ, HUO D. Hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer: heterogeneous risks by race, weight, and breast density. J Natl Cancer Inst [online] 2013 Sep 18, 105(18):1365-72 [viewed 16 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24003037
2. Hormone replacement therapy and endometrial cancer risk: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics [online] 1995 October [viewed 16 July 2016] Available from: doi:10.1016/0020-7292(95)80037-D
3. Reorganized text. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg [online] 2015 May 1, 141(5):428 [viewed 16 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25996397
4. GRADY D, GEBRETSADIK T, KERLIKOWSKE K, ERNSTER V, PETITTI D. Hormone replacement therapy and endometrial cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol [online] 1995 Feb, 85(2):304-13 [viewed 16 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7824251
5. BERAL V, BULL D, REEVES G, MILLION WOMEN STUDY COLLABORATORS. Endometrial cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet [online] 2005 Apr 30-May 6, 365(9470):1543-51 [viewed 16 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15866308
6. BRINTON LA, FELIX AS. Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of endometrial cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol [online] 2014 Jul:83-9 [viewed 16 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23680641
7. OEFFINGER KC, FONTHAM ET, ETZIONI R, HERZIG A, MICHAELSON JS, SHIH YC, WALTER LC, CHURCH TR, FLOWERS CR, LAMONTE SJ, WOLF AM, DESANTIS C, LORTET-TIEULENT J, ANDREWS K, MANASSARAM-BAPTISTE D, SASLOW D, SMITH RA, BRAWLEY OW, WENDER R, AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETY. Breast Cancer Screening for Women at Average Risk: 2015 Guideline Update From the American Cancer Society. JAMA [online] 2015 Oct 20, 314(15):1599-614 [viewed 18 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26501536
8. PACI E, EUROSCREEN WORKING GROUP. Summary of the evidence of breast cancer service screening outcomes in Europe and first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. J Med Screen [online] 2012:5-13 [viewed 18 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22972806
9. JOFFE H, SOARES CN, COHEN LS. Assessment and treatment of hot flushes and menopausal mood disturbance. Psychiatr Clin North Am [online] 2003 Sep, 26(3):563-80 [viewed 22 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14563098
10. SASSARINI J, LUMSDEN MA. Hot flushes: are there effective alternatives to estrogen? Menopause Int [online] 2010 Jun, 16(2):81-8 [viewed 22 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20729500
11. DALAL PK, AGARWAL M. Postmenopausal syndrome Indian J Psychiatry [online] 2015 Jul, 57(Suppl 2):S222-S232 [viewed 16 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539866
12. HANEY AF, WILD RA. Options for hormone therapy in women who have had a hysterectomy. Menopause [online] 2007 May-Jun, 14(3 Pt 2):592-7; quiz 598-9 [viewed 18 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17476150
13. STEINER AZ, XIANG M, MACK WJ, SHOUPE D, FELIX JC, LOBO RA, HODIS HN. Unopposed estradiol therapy in postmenopausal women: results from two randomized trials. Obstet Gynecol [online] 2007 Mar, 109(3):581-7 [viewed 16 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17329508
14. HERRINTON LJ, WEISS NS. Postmenopausal unopposed estrogens. Characteristics of use in relation to the risk of endometrial carcinoma. Ann Epidemiol [online] 1993 May, 3(3):308-18 [viewed 16 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8275205 CAMPAGNOLI C, CLAVEL-CHAPELON F, KAAKS R, PERIS C, BERRINO F. Progestins and progesterone in hormone replacement therapy and the risk of breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol [online] 2005 Jul, 96(2):95-108 [viewed 18 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15908197]
15. LAWLOR DA, SMITH GD. Cardiovascular risk and hormone replacement therapy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol [online] 2006 Dec, 18(6):658-65 [viewed 18 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17099339