Responsive

Released on 25/12/2016

Key Learning Points

  • Continuous cardiac monitoring in hyperkalemia
  • Lone atrial fibrillation
  • Management of acute upper GI bleeding due to gastric ulcers
  • Serotonin toxicity - diagnostic criteria
  • The Rockall Score and acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Topical NSAIDs and Warfarin
  • Treatment of hyperkalemia
  • Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in hyperkalemia

References

1. AGRAWAL P, CHOPRA D, PATRA SK, MADAAN H. Periodic paralysis: An unusual presentation of drug-induced hyperkalemia J Pharmacol Pharmacother [online] 2014 Jan-Mar, 5(1):63-66 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3917171
2. LEHNHARDT A, KEMPER MJ. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia Pediatr Nephrol [online] 2010 Dec 22, 26(3):377-384 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3061004
3. Correction. Circulation [online] 2015 Jun 16, 131(24):e535 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26078378
4. NOUREDDINE LAMA, DIXON BRADLEY S. Complications and management of hyperkalemia: implications for the use of the novel cation exchangers zirconium cyclosilicate and patiromer. Clinical Investigation [online] 2015 December, 5(10):805-823 [viewed 20 July 2016] Available from: doi:10.4155/cli.15.48
5. AYOUB I, OH MS, GUPTA R, MCFARLANE M, BABINSKA A, SALIFU MO. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats PLoS One [online] 2015 Sep 28, 10(9):e0137636 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4587365
6. VARRIALE P, NGAI L. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate use revisited. Am J Med [online] 2014 Aug, 127(8):e37 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24269324
7. WATSON M, ABBOTT KC, YUAN CM. Damned if you do, damned if you don't: potassium binding resins in hyperkalemia. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol [online] 2010 Oct, 5(10):1723-6 [viewed 21 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20798253
8. HOLLANDER-RODRIGUEZ JC, CALVERT JF JR. Hyperkalemia. Am Fam Physician [online] 2006 Jan 15, 73(2):283-90 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16445274
9. RASTOGI R, SWARM RA, PATEL TA. Case scenario: opioid association with serotonin syndrome: implications to the practitioners. Anesthesiology [online] 2011 Dec, 115(6):1291-8 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22037635
10. VOLPI-ABADIE J, KAYE AM, KAYE AD. Serotonin Syndrome Ochsner J [online] 2013 Winter, 13(4):533-540 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3865832
11. ABLES AZ, NAGUBILLI R. Prevention, recognition, and management of serotonin syndrome. Am Fam Physician [online] 2010 May 1, 81(9):1139-42 [viewed 20 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20433130
12. COOPER BE, SEJNOWSKI CA. Serotonin syndrome: recognition and treatment. AACN Adv Crit Care [online] 2013 Jan-Mar, 24(1):15-20; quiz 21-2 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23343808
13. STANLEY AJ. Update on risk scoring systems for patients with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage World J Gastroenterol [online] 2012 Jun 14, 18(22):2739-2744 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374976
14. WANG CY, QIN J, WANG J, SUN CY, CAO T, ZHU DD. Rockall score in predicting outcomes of elderly patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding World J Gastroenterol [online] 2013 Jun 14, 19(22):3466-3472 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683686
15. KIM JS, PARK SM, KIM BW. Endoscopic Management of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding Clin Endosc [online] 2015 Mar 27, 48(2):106-111 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4381136
16. LAINE L, JENSEN DM. Management of patients with ulcer bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol [online] 2012 Mar, 107(3):345-60; quiz 361 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22310222
17. FROST L. Lone atrial fibrillation: good, bad, or ugly? Circulation [online] 2007 Jun 19, 115(24):3040-1 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17576879
18. GELSOMINO S, LA MEIR M, LUCa F, LORUSSO R, CRUDELI E, VASQUEZ L, GENSINI GF, MAESSEN J. Treatment of lone atrial fibrillation: a look at the past, a view of the present and a glance at the future. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg [online] 2012 Jun, 41(6):1284-94 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22233800
19. CHOI KH, KIM AJ, SON IJ, KIM KH, KIM KB, AHN H, LEE EB. Risk Factors of Drug Interaction between Warfarin and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Practical Setting J Korean Med Sci [online] 2010 Feb 17, 25(3):337-341 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2826747
20. AMENT PW, BERTOLINO JG, LISZEWSKI JL. Clinically significant drug interactions. Am Fam Physician [online] 2000 Mar 15, 61(6):1745-54 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10750880
21. MAKRIS U, KOHLER M, FRAENKEL L. Adverse Effects (AEs) of Topical NSAIDs in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis (OA): a Systematic Review of the Literature J Rheumatol [online] 2010 Apr 1, 37(6):1236-1243 [viewed 20 July 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2880214