Convoluted

Released on 12/08/2017

Key Learning Points

  • Acute on chronic kidney injury
  • Anemia in chronic kidney disease
  • Blood pressure control in diabetic nephropathy
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy
  • Indications for emergency hemodialysis
  • Management of acute on chronic kidney injury
  • Management of anemia in chronic kidney disease

References

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2. KIM SS, KIM JH, KIM IJ. Current Challenges in Diabetic Nephropathy: Early Diagnosis and Ways to Improve Outcomes Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) [online] 2016 May 27, 31(2):245-253 [viewed 04 October 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4923408
3. LIPSKA KJ, BAILEY CJ, INZUCCHI SE. Use of metformin in the setting of mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency. Diabetes Care [online] 2011 Jun, 34(6):1431-7 [viewed 22 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21617112
4. HANEDA M, MORIKAWA A. Which hypoglycaemic agents to use in type 2 diabetic subjects with CKD and how? Nephrol Dial Transplant [online] 2009 Feb, 24(2):338-41 [viewed 24 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19015168
5. ROETT MA, LIEGL S, JABBARPOUR Y. Diabetic nephropathy--the family physician's role. Am Fam Physician [online] 2012 May 1, 85(9):883-9 [viewed 24 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22612183
6. NEEDHAM E. Management of acute renal failure. Am Fam Physician [online] 2005 Nov 1, 72(9):1739-46 [viewed 24 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16300036
7. RAGHAVAN R. When access to chronic dialysis is limited: one center's approach to emergent hemodialysis. Semin Dial [online] 2012 May, 25(3):267-71 [viewed 06 October 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22494194
8. RIVERA JA, O'HARE AM, HARPER GM. Update on the management of chronic kidney disease. Am Fam Physician [online] 2012 Oct 15, 86(8):749-54 [viewed 24 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23062158
9. Notice. Kidney Int Suppl (2011) [online] 2012 Aug, 2(4):279 [viewed 12 November 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25018943
10. LOCATELLI F, NISSENSON AR, BARRETT BJ, WALKER RG, WHEELER DC, ECKARDT KU, LAMEIRE NH, EKNOYAN G. Clinical practice guidelines for anemia in chronic kidney disease: problems and solutions. A position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int [online] 2008 Nov, 74(10):1237-40 [viewed 09 October 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18596731
11. VAN BUREN PN, TOTO R. Hypertension in Diabetic Nephropathy: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Management Adv Chronic Kidney Dis [online] 2011 Jan, 18(1):28-41 [viewed 24 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3221014
12. JAMES PA, OPARIL S, CARTER BL, CUSHMAN WC, DENNISON-HIMMELFARB C, HANDLER J, LACKLAND DT, LEFEVRE ML, MACKENZIE TD, OGEDEGBE O, SMITH SC JR, SVETKEY LP, TALER SJ, TOWNSEND RR, WRIGHT JT JR, NARVA AS, ORTIZ E. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA [online] 2014 Feb 5, 311(5):507-20 [viewed 24 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24352797
13. THOMAS R, KANSO A, SEDOR JR. Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Complications Prim Care [online] 2008 Jun, 35(2):329-vii [viewed 24 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474786
14. WU VC, HUANG TM, LAI CF, SHIAO CC, LIN YF, CHU TS, WU PC, CHAO CT, WANG JY, KAO TW, YOUNG GH, TSAI PR, TSAI HB, WANG CL, WU MS, CHIANG WC, TSAI IJ, HU FC, LIN SL, CHEN YM, TSAI TJ, KO WJ, WU KD. Acute-on-chronic kidney injury at hospital discharge is associated with long-term dialysis and mortality. Kidney Int [online] 2011 Dec, 80(11):1222-30 [viewed 24 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21832983
15. RAHMAN M, SHAD F, SMITH MC. Acute kidney injury: a guide to diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician [online] 2012 Oct 1, 86(7):631-9 [viewed 24 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23062091