Acidotic

Released on 23/04/2016

Key Learning Points

  • Bicarbonate
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
  • Fluid management in DKA: Acute Stage
  • Fluid management in DKA: Maintenance
  • Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes
  • Insulin Therapy in DKA
  • Insulin bolus plus infusion vs an infusion alone
  • Insulin regimens used in long term management of type 1 diabetes
  • Potassium (K+) correction
  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

References

1. DE FERRANTI SD, DE BOER IH, FONSECA V, FOX CS, GOLDEN SH, LAVIE CJ, MAGGE SN, MARX N, MCGUIRE DK, ORCHARD TJ, ZINMAN B, ECKEL RH. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association Diabetes Care [online] 2014/10/01 00:00, 37(10):2843-2863 [viewed 12 February 2016] Available from: doi:10.2337/dc14-1720
2. SLIM IB. Cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes mellitus Indian J Endocrinol Metab [online] 2013/10/01 00:00, 17(Suppl1):S7-S13 [viewed 12 February 2016] Available from: doi:10.4103/2230-8210.119489
3. ATKINSON MA, EISENBARTH GS, MICHELS AW. Type 1 diabetes Lancet [online] 2014/01/04 00:00, 383(9911):69-82 [viewed 12 February 2016] Available from: doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60591-7
4. Hyperglycemic Crises in Diabetes. Diabetes Care [online] December, 27(Supplement 1):S94-S102 [viewed 15 February 2016] Available from: doi:10.2337/diacare.27.2007.S94
5. GOSMANOV AIDAR R, GOSMANOVA ELVIRA, DILLARD-CANNON ERIKA. Management of adult diabetic ketoacidosis. DMSO [online] 2014 June [viewed 15 February 2016] Available from: doi:10.2147/DMSO.S50516
6. GOSMANOV AR, GOSMANOVA EO, KITABCHI AE, DE GROOT LJ, BECK-PECCOZ P, CHROUSOS G, DUNGAN K, GROSSMAN A, HERSHMAN JM, KOCH C, MCLACHLAN R, NEW M, REBAR R, SINGER F, VINIK A, WEICKERT MO. Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS) [online] 2000 [viewed 15 February 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25905280
7. CRYER PE. Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am [online] 2010/09/01 00:00, 39(3):641-654 [viewed 12 February 2016] Available from: doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2010.05.003
8. CHUNG ST, HAYMOND MW. Minimizing Morbidity of Hypoglycemia in Diabetes: A Review of Mini-Dose Glucagon J Diabetes Sci Technol [online] 1/01/01 00:00, 9(1):44-51 [viewed 12 February 2016] Available from: doi:10.1177/1932296814547518
9. MCCALL AL. Insulin Therapy and Hypoglycemia Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am [online] 2012/03/01 00:00, 41(1):57-87 [viewed 12 February 2016] Available from: doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2012.03.001
10. PIHOKER C., BADARU A., ANDERSON A., MORGAN T., DOLAN L., DABELEA D., IMPERATORE G., LINDER B., MARCOVINA S., MAYER-DAVIS E., REYNOLDS K., KLINGENSMITH G. J.. Insulin Regimens and Clinical Outcomes in a Type 1 Diabetes Cohort: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Diabetes Care [online] December, 36(1):27-33 [viewed 12 February 2016] Available from: doi:10.2337/dc12-0720
11. The Hospital Management of Hypoglycaemia in Adults with Diabetes Mellitus, NHS Diabetes, March 2010. [viewed 12 February 2016] Available from: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/About_us/What-we-say/Specialist-care-for-children-and-adults-and-complications/The-hospital-management-of-Hypoglycaemia-in-adults-with-Diabetes-Mellitus/
12. KITABCHI AE, UMPIERREZ GE, MILES JM, FISHER JN. Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care [online] 2009 Jul, 32(7):1335-43 [viewed 15 November 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19564476