Inert

Released on 07/09/2016

Key Learning Points

  • Anticholinergics and Parkinsonism
  • Catatonia
  • Catatonia in bipolar disorder
  • Catatonia induced by first-generation of antipsychotics
  • Lorazepam challenge test in catatonia
  • Mutism, negativism, and waxy flexibility
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
  • Non-psychiatric conditions that can present with catatonia
  • Second Generation Antipsychotics and Catatonia
  • Treatment of Catatonia in bipolar disorder

References

1. SIENAERT PASCAL, DHOSSCHE DIRK M., VANCAMPFORT DAVY, DE HERT MARC, GAZDAG GáBOR. A Clinical Review of the Treatment of Catatonia. Front. Psychiatry [online] 2014 December [viewed 06 May 2016] Available from: doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00181
2. ROBERTO AARON J., PINNAKA SUBHASH, MOHAN ABHISHEK, YOON HIEJIN, LAPIDUS KYLE A. B.. Adolescent Catatonia Successfully Treated with Lorazepam and Aripiprazole. Case Reports in Psychiatry [online] 2014 December, 2014:1-4 [viewed 06 May 2016] Available from: doi:10.1155/2014/309517
3. FINK M, SHORTER E, TAYLOR MA. Catatonia is not schizophrenia: Kraepelin's error and the need to recognize catatonia as an independent syndrome in medical nomenclature. Schizophr Bull [online] 2010 Mar, 36(2):314-20 [viewed 13 May 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19586994
4. AKCALI A, SAVAS L. Malignant syndrome of two Parkinson patients due to withdrawal of drugs. Ann Acad Med Singapore [online] 2008 Jan, 37(1):77-8 [viewed 14 May 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18265904
5. MIZUNO Y, TAKUBO H, MIZUTA E, KUNO S. Malignant syndrome in Parkinson's disease: concept and review of the literature. Parkinsonism Relat Disord [online] 2003 Apr:S3-9 [viewed 14 May 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12735909
6. SUDHIR U, VENKATACHALAIAH RK, KUMAR TA, RAO MY, KEMPEGOWDA P. Significance of serum procalcitonin in sepsis Indian J Crit Care Med [online] 2011/01/01 00:00, 15(1):1-5 [viewed 28 May 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3097536
7. GROVER S, CHAKRABARTI S, GHORMODE D, AGARWAL M, SHARMA A, AVASTHI A. Catatonia in inpatients with psychiatric disorders: A comparison of schizophrenia and mood disorders. Psychiatry Res [online] 2015 Oct 30, 229(3):919-25 [viewed 28 May 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260564
8. BAJWA WK, RASTEGARPOUR A, BAJWA OA, BABBITT J. The Management of Catatonia in Bipolar Disorder with Stimulants Case Rep Psychiatry [online] 2015/01/01 00:00:423025 [viewed 28 May 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350849
9. PATEL R, REISS P, SHETTY H, BROADBENT M, STEWART R, MCGUIRE P, TAYLOR M. Do antidepressants increase the risk of mania and bipolar disorder in people with depression? A retrospective electronic case register cohort study BMJ Open [online] 1/01/01 00:00, 5(12):e008341 [viewed 03 June 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4679886
10. MATTILA T, KOETER M, WOHLFARTH T, STOROSUM J, VAN DEN BRINK W, DE HAAN L, DERKS E, LEUFKENS H, DENYS D. Impact of DSM-5 changes on the diagnosis and acute treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull [online] 2015 May, 41(3):637-43 [viewed 03 June 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25528758
11. ALI K, MORRIS HR. Parkinson's disease: chameleons and mimics. Pract Neurol [online] 2015 Feb, 15(1):14-25 [viewed 03 June 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25253895
12. HUANG TL, REE SC, HUANG YC, LIU HY, YANG YY. Catatonic features: differential diagnosis and treatments at an emergency unit. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci [online] 1999 Feb, 53(1):63-6 [viewed 04 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10201286
13. AHUJA N. Organic catatonia: a review. Indian J Psychiatry [online] 2000 Oct, 42(4):327-46 [viewed 04 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21407969
14. PENLAND HR, WEDER N, TAMPI RR. The catatonic dilemma expanded. Ann Gen Psychiatry [online] 2006 Sep 7:14 [viewed 04 September 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16959040