Disjointed

Released on 9/11/2018

Key Learning Points

  • Acute rheumatic fever
  • Erythema marginatum, migrans, multiforme, and nodosum
  • Group A Streptococcal antibodies
  • Group A Streptococcal infection
  • Penicillin allergy
  • Secondary prophylaxis
  • Subclinical carditis
  • The Jones criteria
  • Treatment of the first episode
  • Valvular replacement

References

1. CHOWANIEC M, STARBA A, WILAND P. Erythema nodosum - review of the literature Reumatologia [online] 2016 Jun 3, 54(2):79-82 [viewed 03 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4918048
2. CHAKRABORTY PP, CHAKRABORTY M. Erythema marginatum rheumaticum IDCases [online] 2016 Jan 27:1-2 [viewed 03 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4802667
3. CHAN M, GOLDMAN RD. Erythema multiforme in children: The steroid debate Can Fam Physician [online] 2013 Jun, 59(6):635-636 [viewed 03 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3681448
4. KUMAR RK, TANDON R. Rheumatic fever & rheumatic heart disease: The last 50 years Indian J Med Res [online] 2013 Apr, 137(4):643-658 [viewed 07 April 2017] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724245
5. HENNINGHAM A, BARNETT TC, MAAMARY PG, WALKER MJ. Pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections. Discov Med [online] 2012 May, 13(72):329-42 [viewed 07 April 2017] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22642914
6. UZIEL Y, PERL L, BARASH J, HASHKES PJ. Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis in children: a distinct entity from acute rheumatic fever Pediatr Rheumatol Online J [online] 2011 Oct 20:32 [viewed 07 April 2017] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3217846
7. GEWITZ MH, BALTIMORE RS, TANI LY, SABLE CA, SHULMAN ST, CARAPETIS J, REMENYI B, TAUBERT KA, BOLGER AF, BEERMAN L, MAYOSI BM, BEATON A, PANDIAN NG, KAPLAN EL, AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION COMMITTEE ON RHEUMATIC FEVER, ENDOCARDITIS, AND KAWASAKI DISEASE OF THE COUNCIL ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN THE YOUNG.. Revision of the Jones Criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in the era of Doppler echocardiography: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation [online] 2015 May 19, 131(20):1806-18 [viewed 30 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908771
8. Reményi, B., Wilson, N., Steer, A., et al. (2012). World Heart Federation criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease—an evidence-based guideline. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 9, 297-309. Retrieved March 6, 2016, from http://www.world-heart-federation.org/fileadmin/user_upload/images/Homepage/2012/WHFechoCriteriaForDxRHDnrcardio.2012.7.pdf
9. Solensky, R. (2016, January 27). Patient information: Allergy to penicillin and related antibiotics (Beyond the Basics). Retrieved March 6, 2016, from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/allergy-to-penicillin-and-related-antibiotics-beyond-the-basics
10. Bhattacharya, S. (2010). The Facts About Penicillin Allergy: A Review. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research, 1(1), 11-17. Retrieved March 6, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3255391/
11. The Australian guideline for prevention, diagnosis and management of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (2nd edition), RHDAustralia, Menzies School of Health Research, National Heart Foundation of Australia, Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand 2012 [viewed 6 January 2017] Available from: http://www.rhdaustralia.org.au/resources/australian-guideline-prevention-diagnosis-and-management-acute-rheumatic-fever-and
12. EROğLU AG. Update on diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever: 2015 Jones criteria Turk Pediatri Ars [online] 2016 Mar 1, 51(1):1-7 [viewed 03 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4829161